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Effects on specific rights
- The right to life
- The right to adequate food
- The right to water
- The right to health
- The right to adequate housing
- The right to a healthy environment
- The right to privacy, family, and home
- The right to culture
Effects on specific groups
- Climate change will exacerbate existing health risks and undermine support structures that protect children from harm. The health burden of climate change (e.g. malnutrition, infant and child mortality and morbidity) will primarily be borne by children in the developing world. Likewise, increased stress on livelihoods will hinder their right to education. For more information, please read: General Comment No. 15 (2013) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
- Women are especially exposed to climate change-related risks due to existing gender discrimination, inequality and inhibiting gender roles. It is established that women, particularly elderly women and girls, are affected more severely and are more at risk during all phases of weather-related disasters: risk preparedness, warning communication and response, social and economic impacts, recovery and reconstruction. For more information, please read: General Recommendation No. 37 (2018) of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
- Climate change poses a serious threat to indigenous peoples, who often live in marginal lands and fragile ecosystems which are particularly sensitive to alterations in the physical environment. Climate change-related impacts have already led to the relocation of Inuit communities in polar regions and affected their traditional livelihoods. Indigenous peoples inhabiting low-lying island States face similar pressures, threatening their cultural identity which is closely linked to their traditional lands and livelihoods.
- African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights
- European Court of Human Rights
- Inter-American Human Rights System
- UN Human Rights Committee
- Advisory Opinion OC-23/17 on the Environment and Human Rights (2017) - Inter-American Human Rights System
- Cordella and Others v. Italy - European Court of Human Rights
- Fadeyeva v. Russia - European Court of Human Rights
- In Re Greenpeace Southeast Asia and Others - Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines
- Indigenous Communities of the Lhaka Honhat Association (Our Land) v. Argentina - Inter-American Human Rights System
- López Ostra v. Spain - European Court of Human Rights
- Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights (MFHR) v. Greece - European Committee on Social Rights
- Öneryildiz v. Turkey - European Court of Human Rights
- Saramaka People v. Suriname - Inter-American Human Rights System
- Sarayaku v. Ecuador - Inter-American Human Rights System
- Taşkın and Others v. Turkey - European Court of Human Rights
- Tătar v. Romania - European Court of Human Rights
- UN Human Rights Committee Views Adopted on Teitiota Communication
- Yanomami v. Brazil - Inter-American Human Rights System
- Youth for Climate Justice v. Austria, et al. - European Court of Human Rights
- Human Rights and Climate Change: What Role for the European Convention on Human Rights? EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS, 2 MARCH 2021
- Plugging the enforcement gap: The rise and rise of human rights in climate change litigation. Savaresi, Jan 31, 2021, Questions of International Law.
- HUMAN RIGHTS ARGUMENTS INCREASINGLY DEPLOYED IN CLIMATE CHANGE LITIGATION. Herbert Smith Freehills Legal Briefing, 30 July 2020.
- Climate litigation and human rights: averting the next global crisis. Cesar Rodriguez Garavito, Open Global Rights, June 26, 2020.
- Climate change and human rights – Can the courts fix it? Kling, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, 2019.
- The use of human rights law in climate change litigation: inquiring human rights obligations of States in the context of climate change; and the use of human rights law in Urgenda and other climate cases. 2019.
- Climate Change Litigation and Human Rights: Pushing the Boundaries. Savaresi et al. 2019.
- Linking Climate Litigation and Human Rights. Marilyn Averill, 2009.
- Climate Change and International Human Rights Litigation: A Critical Appraisal. Posner, 2007.
- Climate change litigation and human rights arguments: Stocktaking and a look at the future. Workshop, May 2021.
- Database of human rights climate cases
- Joint statement by five treaty bodies in relation to the United Nations Climate Action Summit (2019)
- IOM Environmental Migration Portal